All the living things are made up of atoms, but in most cases, those atoms aren’t just floating around individually. Instead, they’re usually interacting with other atoms.
A molecule of water contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom and is described by the chemical formula H2O. But what is the force holding the hydrogen and oxygen atoms together in the molecule? The force responsible for holding the atoms together in a molecule is known as a chemical bond. There exist many theories that attempt to explain the manner in which chemical bonding takes place. An example of one such theory is the valence bond theory, which is often abbreviated to VBT.
The Atoms tend to arrange themselves in the most stable patterns that is possible, and this means that they have a tendency to complete or fill their outermost electron orbits. They join with other atoms in order to do so. The force that holds these atoms together is known as chemical bond.
There are several types of chemical bonds which vary based on the degree of attraction between the atoms held together by the bond. If the attraction between two atoms is high, the bond is said to be strong. Conversely, if there is barely any attraction between two atoms, the bond is said to be weak.
Types of Chemical Bonds
The strongest type of chemical bond is the ionic bond. It arises when atoms lose or gain electrons in order to obtain noble gas configurations. When an atom loses an electron, it gains a positive charge. Similarly, an atom obtains a negative charge when it gains an electron. These charged atoms are called ions. The positive charged ions are known as cations and negative charged ions are known as anions.
Ionic bonds are formed due to the attraction between positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions). Ionic bonds are bonds formed by ions with opposite charges.
Covalent chemical bonds involve the sharing of electrons between two atoms. These electrons are shared in such a manner that each of the bonded atoms obtains a noble gas configuration. Other types of chemical bonds include coordinate covalent bonds and metallic bonds.
When two atoms are connected by covalent bond may exert different attractions for the electrons in the bond and producing an unevenly distributed charge. This bond is known as Polar bond with one end of the molecule slightly negatively charged and the other end slightly positively charged.
Hydrogen bonds are strong intermolecular forces created when a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative atom approaches a nearby electronegative atom. Hydrogen atom is always included in this bond and occurs between the molecules or within the part of single molecule.
The molecular orbital theory describes the electronic structures of molecules that are formed from covalent bonds. This theory suggests that a linear combination of atomic orbitals belonging to the bonding atoms yields a molecular orbital. To learn more about chemical bonds, subscribe to the BYJU’S youtube channel and enable notifications.